Dada and Surrealism, in Brief

L.H.O.O.Q by Marcel Duchamp (1919).

In the 19th century, art was mainly defined by ‘bourgeois individualism’, and was enjoyed by members of this class as a means of escaping the constraints of day-to-day life. By early 20th century Europe, the stark shift in social landscape — such as the global wave of industrialisation and the climate encompassing the First World War- prompted the belief that art should parallel these new experiences, and should no longer be separate from the realities of the world. In other words, there was a growing conviction that art should move beyond purely aesthetic pleasures (art for art’s sake) to ‘affect people’s lives’ (Hopkins, 2004, pp. 2–3).

This article will explore, in brief, the origins of two early-20th century avant-garde art movements: Dada, and its historical heir, Surrealism. We will observe some of the foundational ideas and sentiments behind the movements, and how these sentiments translated into art.

We will first examine (a) Dada by going over (i) its origins, before taking a quick look at (ii) Dadaist collages and photomontages. Then, we will observe (iii) the impact of Marcel Duchamp’s readymades on the world of art, before ending with (iv) the footings of Surrealism nearing the end of Dada. Then, we will discuss the onset of (b) Surrealism and (i) its fascination with Freudian thought. We will also refer to how Freudian concepts laid the groundwork for Surrealism’s keynote (ii) psychic automatism and (iii) themes in painting. Finally, we will take note of (iv) the ideas of a ‘mental revolution’ by both these movements.

a. Dada

(i) The origins

Due to the socio-economic state of affairs at the time, art movements, including Dada, were inevitably politicised. The Dadaists posited that values associated with traditional art, such as the veneration of human reason and logic, were decadent in that they were synonymous with the bourgeois institution that would later lead to the world wars (ibid, p. 71). Jean Arp (1948, p. 49) encapsulates the Dadaists’ frustrations with the state of affairs at the time: ‘In Zurich in 1915, losing interest in the slaughterhouses of the world war, we turned to the Fine Arts. While the thunder of the batteries rumbled in the distance, we pasted, we recited, we versified, we sang with all our soul. We searched for an elementary art that would, we thought, save mankind from the furious folly of these times.’

Hopkins (pp. 8–9) describes the etymology behind the Dadaists’ name. Hugo Ball, credited as the founder of Dada, coined the name: ‘Dada is ‘yes yes’ in Rumanian, ‘rocking horse’ and ‘hobbyhorse’ in French. For Germans it is a sign of foolish naiveté, joy in procreation, and preoccupation with the baby carriage.’ Richard Heulsenbeck, on the other hand, said he had discovered the name and thought of it as reminiscent of a child’s first words- the primitive and infant associations alluding to the birth of a new era of art. The word Dada, then, as Hopkins put it, ‘paradoxically stood for everything and nothing’ (p. 9).

Opposing the ideals of ‘the institution’, Dada sought to overturn conventional notions of art and ‘the way art served a certain conception of human nature’ (ibid, p. 8). Francis Picabia represents this idea with his 1920 showcase of a stuffed monkey surrounded by the words ‘Portrait of Cézanne, Portrait of Renoir, Portrait of Rembrandt.’ Picabia’s depiction symbolises how Dada strove to undermine long-standing society by portraying its famed artists as a mockery.

Portrait of Cézanne, Portrait of Renoir, Portrait of Rembrandt by Francis Picabia (1920).

Dadaist creations, deemed anti-art, were said by Spiteri and LaCoss (2003) to be focused on the ‘chance breakdown of all existing and potential systems’ (p. 47). Oftentimes, this would mean picking apart accepted artistic norms. Where traditional art was made to be pleasing to the eye, Dada was without aesthetic consideration. Where traditional art was delicate, Dada would be unruly. Hopkins (p. 7) provides his own illustration of this: ‘If poetry was synonymous with refined sensibility, [the Dadaists] would wrench it apart and reorientate it towards babble and incantation.’ According to Trachtman (2006), these off-centre and zany characteristics, considered radical at the time, would come to foreshadow the eccentricity of modern art.

Hopkins’ description aptly alludes to Hugo Ball’s 1916 Dada Manifesto. Ball (1996, p. 221) wrote of the arbitrary nature of word-meaning associations, and his inclination to fabricate his own:

‘I want my own stuff, my own rhythm, and vowels and consonants too, matching the rhythm and all my own. If this pulsation is seven yards long, I want words for it that are seven yards long […] Why can’t a tree be called Pluplusch, and Pluplubasch when it has been raining?’

(ii) Collages and Photomontage

Max Ernst, one of the most prolific figures in Dada, produced collages ‘from fragments of recognisable imagery […] to produce disturbing counter-realities’ (Hopkins, p. 74). Collage, the artistic method of cutting up source material and reassembling the pieces to shape images according to the artist’s whim, is innately Dadaist in nature. The Dadaists gave rise to a method of collage known as photomontage, wherein photographs or other photographic material would be included in the final work. Cramer and Grant (2020) note of how collages went hand-in-hand with two objectives essential to the Dadaists.

One, utilising readily made items in composing the collage ‘negated the importance of artistic skill,’ and directly went up against the long-time traditions of art as being hand-made by the artist (eg. paintings). Two, the use of mass-produced articles (such as magazines, advertising) ‘[collapsed] boundaries between “high” and “low” culture’ — integral to the Dadaist’s resentment of art being a symbol of the upper class, and by extension, respected society in general.

The Art Critic by Raoul Hausmann (1919–20). The photomontage serves as an expression of Hausmann’s critique of the tradition art institution, as well as society in general.

Hopkins (p. 77) further adds the distinction between Dadaist collage and photomontage. Collages, as made by Ernst, ‘rarely made overt social references’ and mainly functioned to downplay ‘the physical
nature of his materials.’ Photomontages, as made by the Dadaists in Berlin, were ‘profoundly politicised.’ As photographs were considered to be the ‘factual record’ of the world, the act of distorting these pictures to shape bizarre imagery inimical to reality was akin to tearing into the very fabric of the society and only added to the absurdity the Dadaists strove towards (Cramer and Grant).

The Dadaists’ collages and photomontages, designed by the rearrangement of pre-made items instead of the artist’s hands-on skill, stood against conventional notions of art. The ongoing theme of confronting standard definitions of art and bringing into question what we can consider to be ‘art’ comes to a head, as we will see below, in Marcel Duchamp’s readymades.

(iii) Readymades and redefining art

A benchmark of anti-art was Marcel Duchamp’s readymades, in which he constructed physical imagery by selecting and reassembling ordinary manufactured products, and in so was ‘taking a common object out of its customary setting and placing it, verbally or visually or both, in a new and unfamiliar one’ (Tomkins, 1996, p. 38) [1]. Duchamp’s Fountain, an upside-down urinal signed ‘R. Mutt, 1917’, challenged the orthodox standards of handmade art as the central piece was factory-made, not hand-crafted by the artist himself. Fountain was revolutionary in that it pioneered the idea of art being a concept rather than an object, flying in the face of traditional definitions of art [2]. Moreover, it questioned the validity of attempting to confine art to a school by imposing such standards at all- a reflection of the Dadaist contempt towards cultural conformity (Mann, 2007).

In a BBC Radio (1959) interview, Duchamp summarised the disfavour of the need to define art, saying:

‘All right, can we try to define art? We have tried, everybody has tried, and every century there is a new definition of art. […] So if we accept the idea that trying not to define art is a legitimate conception, then the readymade can be seen as a sort of irony, or an attempt at showing the futility of trying to define art, because here it is, a thing that I call art. I didn’t even make it myself, […] I take it ready-made, even though it was made in a factory. But it is not made by hand, so it is a form of denying the possibility of defining art.’

Fountain by Marcel Duchamp (1917).
Fountain by Marcel Duchamp (1917).
Fountain by Marcel Duchamp (1917).

The objective of Dada was not to demolish the field of art itself. Rather, as told by Jean Arp (cited in Hancock, 1983, p. 129) Dada sought to defy the principles of modern society by ‘[replacing] the logical nonsense of the men of today by the illogically senseless.’ Because traditional forms of art were closely intertwined with the very institution they were against, the Dadaists employed artistic expression as their medium of rebellion. Ball (cited in Kostelanetz et. al, 1996) remarked:

‘It is true that for us art is not an end in itself, we have lost too many of our illusions for that. Art is for us an occasion for social criticism, and for real understanding of the age we live in… Dada was not a school of artists, but an alarm signal against declining values, routine and speculations, a desperate appeal, on behalf of all forms of art, for a creative basis on which to build a new and universal consciousness of art.’

The Dadaists themselves embraced the term anti-art, in that it ‘separated them from the masses’ and represented their rejection of convention (Maddern, 2009, p. 1). The prevalence of anti-art proved to be the downfall of Dada, as its hallmark of being unconventional would ironically shape Dada into an art movement — an organisation the Dadaists originally sought to avoid.

(iv) The footings of Surrealism

Eventually, the negativistic attitudes and anarchist spirit behind Dada compounded, resulting in an inclination to destroy the concept of art itself which unsettled the Dadaists themselves (Antliff, cited in Sartwell, 2011, p. 125). For instance, instead of presenting irrational depictions, poetry became a means of deconstructing language. At a defining Dada showcase in June 1916, Ball (quoted in Rumens, 2009) presented his phonetic poem, Gadji beri bimba:

gadji beri bimba glandridi laula lonni cadori
gadjama gramma berida bimbala glandri galassassa laulitalomini
gadji beri bin blassa glassala laula lonni cadorsu sassala bim […]

Such deconstruction was based on the Dadaist perception that the ‘normal’ language of the time was, as other components of established society, untrustworthy. Ball (p. 71) was quoted saying: ‘In these phonetic poems we the Dadaist artists totally renounce the language that journalism has abused and corrupted. We must return to the innermost alchemy of the word, we must even give up the word too, to keep for poetry its last and holiest refuge.’ At the aforementioned June 1916 Dada show, the rowdy nature of the performances had overwhelmed even Ball, who found himself leaving the movement shortly after (Hopkins, p. 32).

Left: Hugo Ball, the author of the Dada Manifesto and the credited founder of Dada. Right: Ball in costume while performing sound poetry (1916).

Following a decline in Dadaist events, the footings of Surrealism began to take shape. In 1921, the mock trial of Maurice Barres, a right-wing author, signified a distinct departure from previous Dada proceedings: it was thoughtful, carefully planned and, more importantly, conceived to present and examine reasonable ideas (ibid, p. 36). By Barres ‘taking the stand’, the Dadaists were effectively asserting that they were to engage in a rational debate of political ideologies — a position that Dada had previously avoided, as it had originally rejected the valuation of reason.

The mock trial marked a change in artistic principles as we see Dadaists begin to refocus their emphasis from the defiance against ‘the establishment’, to engaging with the issues of everyday life. In the next segment, we will seek to understand the evolution of Surrealism in the wake of Dada and subsequently pinpoint the central ideas that define the Surrealist movement.

b. Surrealism

As Dada’s artistic heir, Surrealism presented a contrasting idea: instead of wishing to overturn society, the Surrealists sought to re-enchant life by probing the inner-workings of reality by exploring irreality. The publication of André Breton’s First Surrealist Manifesto in 1924 marked the birth of Surrealism. Breton (1969, p. 26) defined Surrealism to be ‘based on the belief in the superior reality of certain previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought.’ Succeeding Dada, Surrealism retained its attention to irrationality (the disinterested play of thought) but, influenced by Sigmund Freud’s theories, evolved to show intrigue with the unconscious mind (Hopkins, p. 17; 68–71).

The intrigue with the unconscious as heralded by the Surrealists was in part largely due to the influence of its founder, André Breton, who himself had shown a particular interest in the field of psychiatry during his time studying medicine, long before his career in the arts.

(i) The fascination with Freud

Rabaté (2002) explains Breton’s early encounters with Freud. Serving in the neuro-psychiatric ward of Saint-Dizier, France during the First World War, Breton was first introduced to Sigmund Freud through his ‘voracious’ readings of psychiatric literature (p. 59). Freud’s model of the unconscious — namely that of free association — prompted Breton to observe the ‘nonsensical tirades’ which he would hear from psychotic patients (p. 57). Breton (cited in Haan et. al, 2012, p. 3832) later said ‘the nature of diagnosis and psychoanalysis, and in particular, the recording of dreams and free association […] were from the beginning at the heart of Surrealism.’

Sigmund Freud, photographed by Max Halberstadt. Freud’s ideas of the human mind and how it operates unconsciously inspired André Breton to delve into and develop the concept psychic automatism.

To understand Breton’s (and by extension, the Surrealist) conception of the unconscious, we must first (briefly) familiarise ourselves with the ideas from which it was shaped. The mind was conventionally thought as an objective, direct perception of the world. Freud’s ideas, at its core, spearheaded the idea of the mind being dynamic and fluid, prone to biases and multi-faceted thought. As said by Cherry (2019a; 2019b), the Freudian model of the unconscious [3] offers the Id as the purely unconscious base of the mind, consisting of instinctual and primal desires (eg. hunger, libido). The Id operates on the pleasure principle (seeking to obtain pleasure by fulfilling these needs), and remains unaffected by the external world.

Magrini (2009) observes the relationship between Freudian ideas and Surrealist thought. In Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud talks of how ‘socialization places great demands on the human,’ a concept not unlike the Surrealist belief of the modern world restraining the creative facilities of the mind (p. 3). In functional society, Freud suggests unconscious urges are suppressed so as to allow ‘higher-level intellectual endeavours’ that would otherwise be impeded by the needs of the Id (p. 3).

The attempt to satisfy an instinctual desire expresses itself as a dream, wherein the bizarre, strange visions are a result of the mind’s own censorship to restrict the gratification of such desires (p. 5). To analyse and interpret an individual’s dreams is thus concurrent with gaining an understanding of the individual’s unconscious inclinations, and we will observe applications of this later. For a greater part, the Surrealists did not adopt Freudian ideas outright, rather reinterpreting them to suit their poetic interests. It can be said that Freudian ideas were not the basis of Surrealist concepts per se, rather a ‘jumping off point’ which prompted the Surrealists’ continued fascination with the creative potential man holds.

The notion of the human mind locking away innate desire intrigued Breton. Unlike Freud who sought to moderate the activity of the unconscious, he sought to unleash the hidden components of the mind, viewing the Id as ‘the interface between the authentic metaphysical grounds of materiality and the human’s waking existence’ (ibid, p. 5). Rabaté noted of how free association (a method that requires an individual to read off the content of conscious experiences and memories without judgment) [4], integral to Freudian psychoanalysis, laid the groundwork for Breton’s developments in psychic automatism as he began to ‘trust the spontaneous production of language as a key to the unconscious’ (p. 60).

(ii) Psychic automatism and the profane illumination

André Breton, the author of the Surrealist Manifesto and one of founders of Surrealism.

Breton (p. 26) defined psychic automatism [5], in essence, as ‘the actual function of thought — in the absence of any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern.’ For instance, Surrealist poetry was produced via automatic writing where the poet, acting as a ‘modest recording instrument’, transcribed subconscious thought without preconception. The 1919 Les Champs Magne´tiques, a paper on mental automatism wherein ‘each author would write any thought coming to his mind’, was considered one of the ‘founding publication[s]’ of Surrealism (Bergengruen, cited in Haan, et. al, p. 3832).

Hopkins (Introduction) elegantly delineates the two movements: ‘[Dada] often revelled in the chaos and the fragmentation of modern life, whilst Surrealism had more of a restorative mission, attempting to create a new mythology and put modern man and woman back in touch with the forces of the unconscious.’ Based on Matthews (1991, p. 108), the idea of a return to the unconscious stemmed from the view that art, at the time, was ‘alienated from man’s most essential needs’ and hence necessitated transformation into ‘an agent of reconciliation operating by way of imaginative liberation.’

In other words, Surrealism aspired to heighten the then-repressed potential of human interaction with the world by activating the imagination to ascend the limitations of physical existence. Reality was, as Pierre Mabille wrote, ‘a universe about which it is permissible to wonder if it is not quite different from the way we conceive it habitually’ (cited in Matthews, p. 92).

According to Rasmussen (2004), pp. 371–372), the Surrealists sought ‘emotional shocks’ in their everyday encounters to uncover subliminal meanings behind seemingly mundane objects to reconnect the human psyche with the surreal forces underneath perceived reality ‘to be endowed with a life of their own’. In doing so, Walter Benjamin (cited in Cohen, 1993, p. 3) observed that the Surrealists were working towards ‘profane illumination’, to be achieved via ‘materialist, anthropological inspiration’, ie. from the fantastical interpretation of day-to-day life.

(iii) Surrealist paintings

The visual arts, such as painting, were ambiguous to the Surrealists in that such production would require some form of conscious care, for example: choice of colour, composition, etc. Streahle (2011) examines Surrealist paintings in depth, and differentiates between two types of Surrealist paintings. The first followed Max Ernst’s methods of dissociating himself from the preconceived intentions of producing a ‘planned’ painting, thus achieving automatism in a visual medium — for instance, his method of frottage (to take a rubbing of an uneven surface) kept the involvement of the artist to a minimum (p. 46).

The Habit of Leaves (Les Moeurs des feuilles) by Max Ernst (c. 1925), created with the frottage method.
Courtesy of The Museum of Modern Art.

The second follows Rene Magritte’s approach. Instead of dissociating himself from the preconceived intentions of producing a ‘conscious’ painting (as Ernst had), Magritte created well-planned, precise paintings that would spur the dormant imagination into constructing interpretations of the irrational juxtapositions and compositions of his paintings (pp. 25–26).

Purposefully left without a single interpretation, Georges Roques (cited in Daly, 2013, p. 26) remarked how ‘all explanations and interpretations [of Magritte’s paintings] become possible.’ Here, Freud’s ideas of dreams being a reflection of the individual’s unconscious creativities can be seen [6]. While Magritte delved into the creative psychic universe to uncover dream-like compositions, observers were encouraged to discover innovative meanings behind the unusual placement of usual objects in his paintings by way of imagination. In this sense, both the artist and audience pursued profane illumination by ‘transcending the traditional’ and developing ‘a new understanding of the everyday’ (Streahle, p. 26).

The Beautiful Relations by René Magritte (1967). Courtesy of Encyclopædia Britannica.

(iv) The ‘mental revolution’

Politically speaking, Surrealism supposed that reform was needed not only materially, but spiritually; economic improvement alone could not sufficiently enhance the quality of life. Herbert Marcuse (cited in Spiteri and LaCoss, p. 6) theorised that the Surrealist goal was the ‘restructuring and redirection of mental faculties […] to undo the mutilation of our faculties by the established society and its requirements.’ To the Surrealists, both social welfare and human mentality were products of suppression by the ruling class. Hence, according to Rasmussen (p. 375), ‘man’s mental freedom’, Breton believed, should be sought concurrently with a revolution on the social plane’ — this fueled the idea of a ‘transcendental mental revolution.’

Though the Dadaists did not outright advocate for ‘mental revolution’ so to speak, it can be inferred that they were just as concerned with the reinvention of human attitudes as the Surrealists. Distinction lay in that the former was destructive in its iconoclasm, while the latter was reconstructive in its fantasization of life. Where Dada was anarchic in deriding dreary existence, Surrealism was romantic in revitalising the dull with elements of the fantastic.

Despite their artistic reputability, neither Dada or Surrealism set out to be art movements per se; the driving force behind both was more philosophical. As Matthews (p. 109) argued, art was merely the agency by which they operated: Dadaist anti-art was produced to stand as antagonism against society, and art was only pertinent to the Surrealists insofar as it ‘[assisted in] breaking down mental barriers and gaining access to areas of mental and imaginative activity previously beyond reach.’ As developments of the avant-garde, Dada and Surrealism were more defined by their attitudes towards art than their actual art- seeking to ‘merge art and life’ (Hopkins, p. 152).

Confronted with political and social turmoil that plagued the world with war and revolt, the Dadaists and Surrealists turned to artistic sensibility. The utilisation of art went far beyond mere iconoclasm; art was a means to facilitate the reinvention of human attitudes in an act of insurgency against the values that brought violence and ruin. The work of the Dadaists represented their frustrations with the nature of life at the time, and in one way or another allowed them to make sense of a senseless time. Growing from Dada, the Surrealists departed from anarchy to embrace a more mythologised outlook on reality to breathe life into seemingly lifeless routine existence.

The Surrealist quest to seek enlightenment in apparently uninteresting objects seems all too familiar as today we observe the same sentiment amidst the global pandemic. As they sought fantastic meanings behind the ordinary, we find joy in small things: reading, watching movies, listening to music- all comforting activities that remind us of the delight to be found in our everyday, even when everything else seems bleak.

Endnotes

  1. Duchamp’s readymades were born out of continuing disinterest in ‘retinal art,’ that is, ‘art for the eye alone’ (Tomkins, 1966, p. 34). The inception of readymades paved the way for a new approach art, in which the found object (objet trouvé) — ordinary objects that are not intrinsically artistic in purpose — became art. See the Museum of Modern Art for more on the objet trouvé.
  2. While Duchamp was certainly Dadaist in spirit (as we can see from Fountain), he was not directly associated with the Dada movement. Rather, he ‘remained himself.’ See Marcel Duchamp 1887–1968.
  3. According to Freud, the unconscious personality is composed of three elements: the id (unconscious identity made up of primal instincts), the ego (the conscious mind), and the superego (our conscience and moral ideals learned in society). See Cherry (2019b) for more.
  4. ‘Free association: the expression (as by speaking or writing) of the content of consciousness without censorship as an aid in gaining access to unconscious processes especially in psychoanalysis.’ Merriam-webster, 2020.
  5. The first notions of automatic thought can be traced back to Jules Baillarger, who, in the 1850s, ‘asked his patients to write down any thought that was coming to their minds’ (Haan et. al, 2012, p. 3832).
  6. These dream-like motifs and images are central to the work of Salvador Dalí, who employed the ‘paranoid-critical method’ to produce the ‘new simulacra’ — images originating in the imagination of the unconscious mind. See Constantinidou, 2010 pp. 128–129 for more on Dalí’s paranoid-critical method.

Further Reading

  1. Trachtman, P. (2006). ‘A Brief History of Dada.’ Smithsonian Magazine. Available at: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/dada-115169154/ (Accessed: 24 October 2020).
    An overview of Dada, from its inception to its eventual decline.
  2. Voorhies, J. (2004). ‘Surrealism.’ Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Available at: https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/surr/hd_surr.htm (Accessed: 24 October 2020)
    An overview of Surrealism and the Surrealists.
  3. Mann, J. (2017). How Duchamp’s Urinal Changed Art Forever. Available at: https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-duchamps-urinal-changed-art-forever (Accessed: 23 October 2020).
    The impact of Duchamp’s Fountain on the world of artnamely, in raising the question of what defines art.
  4. Magrini, J. (2009). “Surrealism’s Revisionist Reading of Freudian Psychology: Surreal Film and the Dream.” Philosophy Scholarship, 14. Available at: http://dc.cod.edu/philosophypub/14 (Accessed: 24 October 2020.
    An analysis into the influence of Freudian ideas on Surrealist cinema and thought.
  5. Hopkins, D. (2004). Dada and Surrealism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    A concise yet thorough further reading into Dada and Surrealism, discussing (among many other things) the development of Dada in different cities (Zurich, Paris, Berlin), the transition from Dada to Surrealism, keynote figures, as well as the political perspectives of both movements.

References

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  3. BBC Radio (1959). BBC Radio, 19 January. Available at: http://www.golob-gm.si/4-three-standard-stoppages-marcel-duchamp/r-interview-with-marcel-duchamp-george-heard-hamilton.htm (Accessed: 23 October 2020).
  4. Breton, A. (1996). Manifestoes of Surrealism. Translated by R. Seaver and H. R. Lane. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  5. Cherry, K. (2019a). Freud’s Theory of the Id in Psychology. Available at: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-id-2795275 (Accessed: 24 October 2020).
  6. Cherry, K. (2019b). Freud’s Id, Ego, and Superego. Available at: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-id-ego-and-superego-2795951#the-id (Accessed: 24 October 2020).
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  8. Constantinidou, D. (2010).“The Paranoid Simulacrum in Surrealism: From Embracing Madness to the Mechanism of a Mental Illness as the Purveyor of Individual Meaning.” Gramma: Journal of Theory and Criticism, 12, pp. 119–133.
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  18. Mann, J. (2017). How Duchamp’s Urinal Changed Art Forever. Available at: https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-duchamps-urinal-changed-art-forever (Accessed: 23 October 2020).
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Student with an interest in the arts and humanities. Researcher, writer, and editor at Komuhakan.

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